Die Wahlen in den Vereinigten Staaten fanden am 6. November statt. Es handelt sich um Halbzeitwahlen (englisch midterm elections) während der Amtszeit von US-Präsident Donald Trump. Einfluss der US-amerikanischen Waffenlobby, allen voraus der National Rifle Association (NRA), nach dem von. Then, in November, it's Election Day or General Election. Day. Americans have to be US citizens to be able to vote, and they have to be at least. Die Wahl zum Präsidenten und zum Vizepräsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika Hillary Clinton war – als Ehefrau von Bill Clinton (US-Präsident bis . Jerseys Gouverneur Chris Christie und der pensionierte General Michael T. .. „Hacking a U.S. presidential election [is] even easier than we thought!.
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Would Bernie Sanders have won? Anthony Zurcher North America reporter. The dark depths of hatred for Clinton 12 October Voters rank the candidates in order of preference rather than voting for a single candidate.
If a candidate secures more than half of votes cast, that candidate wins. Otherwise, the candidate with the fewest votes is eliminated. Ballots assigned to the eliminated candidate are recounted and assigned to those of the remaining candidates who rank next in order of preference on each ballot.
This process continues until one candidate wins by obtaining more than half the votes. The eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the constitution and also regulated at state level.
The constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color , sex , or age for citizens eighteen years or older.
Beyond these basic qualifications, it is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate voter eligibility.
Some states ban convicted criminals, especially felons , from voting for a fixed period of time or indefinitely. While the federal government has jurisdiction over federal elections, most election laws are decided at the state level.
Traditionally, voters had to register at state offices to vote, but in the mids efforts were made by the federal government to make registering easier, in an attempt to increase turnout.
The National Voter Registration Act of the "Motor Voter" law required state governments that receive certain types of federal funding to make the voter registration process easier by providing uniform registration services through drivers' license registration centers, disability centers, schools, libraries, and mail-in registration.
Other states allow citizens same-day registration on Election Day. In many states, citizens registering to vote may declare an affiliation with a political party.
A party cannot prevent a voter from declaring his or her affiliation with them, but it can refuse requests for full membership.
In some states, only voters affiliated with a party may vote in that party's primary elections see below. Declaring a party affiliation is never required.
Some states, including Georgia , Michigan , Minnesota , Virginia , Wisconsin , and Washington , practice non-partisan registration.
Voters unable or unwilling to vote at polling stations on Election Day can vote via absentee ballots. Absentee ballots are most commonly sent and received via the United States Postal Service.
Despite their name, absentee ballots are often requested and submitted in person. About half of all states and U.
Others require a valid reason, such as infirmity or travel, be given before a voter can participate using an absentee ballot. Some states, including California,  and Washington   allow citizens to apply for permanent absentee voter status, which will automatically receive an absentee ballot for each election.
Typically a voter must request an absentee ballot before the election occurs. A significant source of absentee ballots is the population of Americans living outside the United States.
UOCAVA requires that the states and territories allow members of the United States Uniformed Services and merchant marine, their family members, and United States citizens residing outside the United States to register and vote absentee in elections for Federal offices.
In addition, all members of the Uniformed Services, their family members and members of the Merchant Marine and their family members, who are U.
Mail ballots are similar in many respects to an absentee ballot. However they are used for Mailing Precincts where on Election Day no polling place is opened for a specific precinct.
Early voting is a formal process where voters can cast their ballots prior to the official Election Day. Early voting in person is allowed in 33 states and in Washington, D.
Voters casting their ballots in polling places record their votes most commonly with optical scan voting machines or DRE voting machines. Voting machine selection is typically done through a state's local election jurisdiction including counties, cities, and townships.
Many of these local jurisdictions have changed their voting equipment since due to the passage of the Help America Vote Act HAVA , which allocated funds for the replacement of lever machine and punch card voting equipment.
Since the s many jurisdictions and voting locations have given out "I Voted" stickers to people casting ballots. In the state of Illinois it is a state law to have stickers available to voters after they have cast their ballots.
The United States has a presidential system of government, which means that the executive and legislature are elected separately.
President must occur on a single day throughout the country; elections for Congressional offices, however, can be held at different times.
Congressional and presidential elections take place simultaneously every four years, and the intervening Congressional elections, which take place every two years, are called Midterm elections.
The constitution states that members of the United States House of Representatives must be at least 25 years old, a citizen of the United States for at least seven years, and be a legal inhabitant of the state they represent.
Senators must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for at least nine years, and be a legal inhabitant of the state they represent.
The President must be at least 35 years old, a natural born citizen of the United States and a resident in the United States for at least fourteen years.
It is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate the qualifications for a candidate appearing on a ballot paper, although in order to get onto the ballot, a candidate must often collect a legally defined number of signatures.
The President and the Vice President are elected together in a Presidential election. In modern times, voters in each state select a slate of electors from a list of several slates designated by different parties or candidates, and the electors typically promise in advance to vote for the candidates of their party whose names of the presidential candidates usually appear on the ballot rather than those of the individual electors.
The winner of the election is the candidate with at least Electoral College votes. It is possible for a candidate to win the electoral vote , and lose the nationwide popular vote receive fewer votes nationwide than the second ranked candidate.
Prior to ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution , the runner-up in a Presidential election  became the Vice President.
Electoral College votes are cast by individual states by a group of electors; each elector casts one electoral college vote. In modern times, with electors usually committed to vote for a party candidate in advance, electors that vote against the popular vote in their state are called faithless electors , and occurrences are rare.
State law regulates how states cast their electoral college votes. In all states except Maine and Nebraska , the candidate that wins the most votes in the state receives all its electoral college votes a "winner takes all" system.
From in Maine, and from in Nebraska, two electoral votes are awarded based on the winner of the statewide election, and the rest two in Maine, three in Nebraska go to the highest vote-winner in each of the state's congressional districts.
Congress has two chambers: The Senate has members, elected for a six-year term in dual-seat constituencies 2 from each state , with one-third being renewed every two years.
The group of the Senate seats that is up for election during a given year is known as a " class "; the three classes are staggered so that only one of the three groups is renewed every two years.
Until the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in , States chose how to elect Senators, and they were often elected by state legislatures, not the electorate of states.
The House of Representatives has members, elected for a two-year term in single-seat constituencies. House of Representatives elections are held every two years on the first Tuesday after November 1 in even years.
Special House elections can occur between if a member dies or resigns during a term. House elections are first-past-the-post elections that elect a Representative from each of House districts which cover the United States.
The non-voting delegates of Washington, D. House elections occur every two years, correlated with presidential elections or halfway through a President's term.
The House delegate of Puerto Rico, officially known as the Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico , is elected to a four-year term, coinciding with those of the President.
As the redistricting commissions of states are often partisan, districts are often drawn which benefit incumbents. An increasing trend has been for incumbents to have an overwhelming advantage in House elections, and since the election , an unusually low number of seats has changed hands in each election.
Gerrymandering of the House, combined with the divisions inherent in the design of the Senate and of the Electoral College, result in a discrepancy between the percentage of popular support for various political parties and the actual level of the parties' representation.
State law and state constitutions, controlled by state legislatures regulate elections at state level and local level. Various officials at state level are elected.
Since the separation of powers applies to states as well as the federal government, state legislatures and the executive the governor are elected separately.
Governors and lieutenant governor are elected in all states, in some states on a joint ticket and in some states separately, some separately in different electoral cycles.
In some states, executive positions such as Attorney General and Secretary of State are also elected offices. All members of state legislatures and territorial jurisdiction legislatures are elected.
In some states, members of the state supreme court and other members of the state judiciary are elected. Proposals to amend the state constitution are also placed on the ballot in some states.
As a matter of convenience and cost saving, elections for many of these state and local offices are held at the same time as either the federal presidential or midterm elections.
There are a handful of states, however, that instead hold their elections during odd-numbered " off years. At the local level, county and city government positions are usually filled by election, especially within the legislative branch.
The extent to which offices in the executive or judicial branches are elected vary from county-to-county or city-to-city.
Some examples of local elected positions include sheriffs at the county level and mayors and school board members at the city level.
Like state elections, an election for a specific local office may be held at the same time as either the presidential, midterm, or off-year elections.
In the US elections are actually conducted by local authorities, working under local, state, and federal law and regulation, as well as the US Constitution.
It is a highly decentralized system. In around half of US states, the Secretary of State is the official in charge of elections; in other states it is someone appointed for the job, or a commission.
Americans vote for a specific candidate instead of directly selecting a particular political party. The United States Constitution has never formally addressed the issue of political parties.
The Founding Fathers such as Alexander Hamilton and James Madison did not support domestic political factions at the time the Constitution was written.
Furthermore, he hoped that political parties would not be formed , fearing conflict and stagnation. Nevertheless, the beginnings of the American two-party system emerged from his immediate circle of advisers, with Hamilton and Madison ending up being the core leaders in this emerging party system.
In the primary elections , the party organization stays neutral until one candidate has been elected.
The platform of the party is written by the winning candidate in presidential elections; in other elections no platform is involved.
Each candidate has his or her own campaign, fund raising organization, etc. The primary elections in the main parties are organized by the states, who also register the party affiliation of the voters this also makes it easier to gerrymander the congressional districts.
The party is thus little more than a campaign organization for the main elections. However, elections in the United States often do become de facto national races between the political parties.
In what is known as " presidential coattails ", candidates in presidential elections usually bring out supporters who then vote for his or her party's candidates for other offices, usually resulting in the presidential winner's party gaining seats in Congress.
This may be because the President's popularity has slipped since election, or because the President's popularity encouraged supporters to come out to vote for him or her in the presidential election, but these supporters are less likely to vote when the President is not up for election.
Ballot access refers to the laws which regulate under what conditions access is granted for a candidate or political party to appear on voters' ballots.
Each State has its own ballot access laws to determine who may appear on ballots and who may not. According to Article I, Section 4, of the United States Constitution, the authority to regulate the time, place, and manner of federal elections is up to each State, unless Congress legislates otherwise.
Depending on the office and the state, it may be possible for a voter to cast a write-in vote for a candidate whose name does not appear on the ballot, but it is extremely rare for such a candidate to win office.
The funding of electoral campaigns has always been a controversial issue in American politics. Infringement of free speech First Amendment is an argument against restrictions on campaign contributions, while allegations of corruption arising from unlimited contributions and the need for political equality are arguments for the other side.
The first attempt to regulate campaign finance by legislation was in , but major legislation, with the intention to widely enforce, on campaign finance was not introduced until the s.
Money contributed to campaigns can be classified into "hard money" and "soft money". Hard money is money contributed directly to a campaign, by an individual or organization.
Soft money is money from an individual or organization not contributed to a campaign, but spent in candidate specific advertising or other efforts that benefits that candidate by groups supporting the candidate, but legally not coordinated by the official campaign.
The Federal Election Campaign Act of required candidates to disclose sources of campaign contributions and campaign expenditure.
It was amended in to legally limit campaign contributions. It introduced public funding for Presidential primaries and elections. The limits on individual contributions and prohibition of direct corporate or labor union campaigns led to a huge increase in the number of PACs.
Today many labor unions and corporations have their own PACs, and over 4, in total exist. The amendment also specified a Federal Election Commission , created in to administer and enforce campaign finance law.
Various other provisions were also included, such as a ban on contributions or expenditures by foreign nationals incorporated from the Foreign Agents Registration Act FARA The case of Buckley v.
Valeo challenged the Act. Most provisions were upheld, but the court found that the mandatory spending limit imposed was unconstitutional, as was the limit placed on campaign spending from the candidate's personal fortune and the provision that limited independent expenditures by individuals and organizations supporting but not officially linked to a campaign.
The effect of the first decision was to allow candidates such as Ross Perot and Steve Forbes to spend enormous amounts of their own money in their own campaigns.
The effect of the second decision was to allow the culture of "soft money" to develop. A amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act allowed political parties to spend without limit on get-out-the-vote and voter registration activities conducted primarily for a presidential candidate.
Later, they were permitted by FECA to use "soft money", unregulated, unlimited contributions to fund this effort. Increasingly, the money began to be spent on issue advertising , candidate specific advertising that was being funded mostly by soft money.
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of banned local and national parties from spending "soft money" and banned national party committees from accepting or spending soft money.